Malocclusion is any deviation from the normal relation of the teeth in the same arch to each other, and to the teeth in
the opposite arch


  • Aetiology is usually multifactorial
  • Discrepancies in the craniofacial skeleton, dentition, or both

Cases that require treatment

The main indications for orthodontic treatment are aesthetics and function.

  • Crossbites (as associated occlusal interferences may predispose to Temporomandibular Pain Dysfunction
  • Deep traumatic overbite with palatal impingement of the mandibular incisors
  • Large overjets (increased risk of trauma), severe crowding (as this reduces periodontal support for teeth)
  • While severe malocclusion can have a psychologically debilitating effect, it is often influenced by social and
    cultural factors


Mild case

  • Removable appliance orthodontic therapy in the mixed dentition, by a dentist

Moderate to severe case

  • Fixed appliance orthodontic therapy in adolescents and adults, by an orthodontist
  • Cases with discrepancies in the craniofacial skeleton may require orthognathic surgery by an
    oral and maxillofacial surgeon