Periodontitis occurs when inflammation or infection of the gums (gingivitis) occurs and is not treated. Infection
and inflammation spreads from the gums (gingiva) to the ligaments and bone that support the teeth. Loss of support
causes the teeth to become loose and eventually fall out.


  • Mixed microbial flora commonly B. gingivalis, B. forsythus, B. intermedius, Wolinella sp, and Fusobacter

Clinical features

  • Bleeding of gums on probing and brushing
  • Foul smelling breath
  • Presence of periodontal pockets due to apical migration of the junctional epithelium beyond the enamel-cemental junction of the tooth
  • Tooth sensitivity to thermal changes
  • Presence of sub-gingival calculus with increased tooth mobility


  • Give instructions on oral hygiene
  • Oral rinses with mouthwash consisting of chlorhexidine solution 0.2% 3 times a day
  • Refer to a dentist for scaling, root planing, and polishing, to remove plaque and calculus deposits