A condition brought about by the loss of significant quantities of fluids and salts from the body.


  • Vomiting and/or diarrhoea
  • Decreased fluid intake
  • Excessive loss of fluids, e.g. due to polyuria in diabetes,
    excessive sweating as in high fever, burns

Clinical features

  • Apathy, sunken eyes/fontanel, loss of skin turgor (especially in children)
  • Hypotension, tachycardia, deep (acidotic) breathing, dry mucosae, poor or no urine output