GOITRE

Visible enlargement of thyroid gland. May be associated with abnormal thyroid function (hyper or hypothyroidism), or not.

Causes

  • Iodine deficiency
  • Grave’s disease
  • Thyroiditis
  • Multinodular
  • Physiological (pregnancy, puberty)

Clinical features

  • Visible neck swelling
  • (Rarely) difficulty in swallowing

Investigations

  • Thyroid hormones
  • Neck ultrasound

Management

  • Refer for thyroid hormones and specialist management
    • If hypo or hyperthyroidism, see next sections
    • If causing obstruction, surgery is indicated