A disease in which small blood vessels are damaged due elevated blood sugar over a prolonged period of time.

Risk factors for Diabetic Retinopathy

  • Longer duration and poor control of diabetes
  • Hypertension, kidney diseases
  • Pregnancy (associated with rapid disease progression)
  • High Body mass index (BMI), sedentary lifestyle
  • Smoking and alcohol use

Clinical features

  • Patients can present either with a sudden painless loss of vision or gradual and progressive loss of vision. It may also be discovered on routine examination


  • Conduct a thorough eye examination
  • Other investigations: fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography


Involves any or a combination of:

  • pan retinal photocoagulation (PRP)
  • Anti-Vascular Endothelial growth factor (VEGF) eye injections
  • Posterior Vitrectomy
  • Low vision rehabilitation


  • Control of diabetes and other risk factors