There are two goals of pain management:

  • Diagnose and treat the disease causing the pain
  • Achieve total pain relief with minimal side-effects and enable the patient to live as normal a life as possible

Pain can be treated through use of medicines and/or non drug treatment

Non pharmacological treatment of pain

  • Lifestyle adjustment
  • Patient counselling
  • Massage with aromatherapy oils: may be useful for neuropathic pain and muscular pain
  • Reflexology
  • Application of heat or cold packs
  • Relaxation
  • Distraction (e.g., listening to radio or partaking in a non-invasive hobby)
  • Non-pharmacological treatment of underlying cause (e.g., surgery or radiotherapy of cancer)
  • Social and spiritual support

Medicines-Based Treatment

The WHO Analgesic Ladder and the following tables describe the use of medicines to relieve pain based on the
type and degree of pain.