URINE INCONTINENCE

Involuntary urine leakage

Causes and clinical features

  • Pelvic floor muscles dysfunction (e.g. following pregnancy): stress incontinence (at strains like coughing,
    sneezing)
  • Overactive bladder: urge incontinence (sudden compelling need to urinate, difficult to defer)
  • Anatomical problems: continuous incontinence (VVF, ectopic ureter)
  • Chronic bladder outlet obstruction: overflow incontinence

Investigations

  • Careful history and examination
  • Urine analysis
  • Abdominal ultrasound

Management

  • Stress incontinence: pelvic floor exercises
  • Other: specific according to the cause