ANAETHESIA

Main objectives of anaesthesia during surgery are to:

  • Relieve pain
  • Support physiological functions
  • Provide favourable conditions for the operation

General Considerations

Types of AnaesthesiaAnaesthesia may be produced in a number of ways

General anaesthesia

  • Basic elements: Loss of consciousness, analgesia, prevention of undesirable reflexes, and muscle relaxation

Regional or local anaesthesia

  • Sensation of pain is blocked without loss of consciousness. The conduction of stimulus from a painful site to the brain can be interrupted at one of the many points:
    • Surface anaesthesia
    • Infiltration anaesthesia
    • Intravenous regional anaesthesia
    • Nerve block/plexus block\
    • Epidural anaesthesia
    • Spinal anaesthesia
ISSUE RECOMMENDATIONS
Equipment
  • Available and in a state of readiness at
    all times
  • Appropriate in quality and quantity
  • Compatible with safety
Staff
  • Qualified anaesthesia provider
  • An assistant for the anaesthesia provider
  • Adequate assistance in positioning the
    patient
  • Adequate technical assistance to ensure
    proper functioning and servicing of all
    equipment
Before
anaesthesia
  • Read the notes/medical records of the
    patient
  • Assess the patient very carefully
  • The drugs, equipment, instruments and
    materials to be used must be known
  • Properly prepare workplace and patient
During
anaesthersia
  • Anaesthesia is administered (induction
    and maintenance)
  • The patient must be monitored
    meticulously to:

    • Ensure his/her well-being
    • Detect dangerous signs as soon as they
      arise and appropriately treat them
  • Expertise in resuscitation is obligatory.
    If in trouble, ask for help
  • Keep an accurate and legible record of
    the anaesthetic and all measured vital
    signs on the anaesthetic chart/form
After
anaesthesia
  • The patient:
    • Recovers from effects of anaesthesia
    • Has stable vital signs
    • Is returned to the ward in the fully
      conscious state
  • Follow-up patient for next 24 hours