These are varicosities of the haemorrhoidal plexus often complicated by inflammation, thrombosis, and bleeding. Haemorrhoids are not commonly associated with pregnancy.
- There is painless rectal bleeding
- Prolapse or sensation of a mass in the anal area (especially during defecation)
- Mucous anal discharge.
Appropriate assessment is digital examination and proctoscopy (use good lght).
Haemorrhoids may be complicated
- Profuse bleeding
- Advise a high residue diet or bulk laxative to prevent constipation
- Specific treatment includes:
- Rubber-band ligation for 2°–3° haemorrhoids
- Manual anal dilatations
- Injection sclerotherapy.
- Haemorrhoidectomy (for 2°–3° piles) where other methods have failed.
- Management of associated compilations.