About 50% of intracranial tumours are metastatic: from lung, breast, thyroid, kidney, and prostate.
The remaining arise from:
- Meninges (e.g., meningioma – of brain tumours).
- Skull (e.g., osteomas, histiocytosis, multiple myeloma, etc.).
- Pituitary and parapituitary adenomas (chromophobe, eosinophilic. basophilic and prolactinomas), and craniopharvngiomas. These will present with headaches, disturbed vision and some form of endocrine change (e.g., Cushing’s syndrome, galactorrhoea, diabetic insipidus, etc.).
- Intracerebral tumours: Gliomas, e.g., astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas.
- Ependymomas medulloblastomas. Diagnosis is made on the basis of clinical history and examination findings, CT scanning, angiography, and tumour biopsy.
- Definitive diagnosis through invasive and non invasive investigations including histology
- Definitive treatment as per the final diagnosis