More cases are being seen and the association with smoking is high .
Different histological subtypes occur, of which squamous cell carcinoma is the most common.

Clinical Features

The clinical features of this condition include the following:

  • Chronic cough
  • Haemoptysis
  • Wheezing or stridor
  • Lung infection or other sequels of bronchial obstruction
  • Features of spread – nodes, malignant effusions, fistulas, etc.
  • Systemic symptoms like appetite loss


  • Chest radiograph
  • CT when more detail needed.


  • Evaluate for extent of disease.
  • Carry out curative resection for early disease.
  • Provide palliative care for late disease.
  • In general, adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care.