Infections of the urogenital system are characterized by the following symptoms:

  • Dysurea
  • Urgency in micturition
  • Colic pain in either flanks or the loins
  • Pain on the lower abdomen due to inflammation of the urinary bladder (cystitis)
  • Poor urinary stream
  • Dribbling and hesitancy
  • Nocturia
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Urinary retention
  • Haematuria
  • Renal failure

These symptoms overlap over many specific conditions, so that a thorough examination is required to facilitate an accurate diagnosis.

The following need to be done in this regard:

  • Ask and check for urethral discharge.
  • Palpate the urethra for areas of induration (stricture).
  • Palpate the lower abdomen for tenderness, masses in the urinary bladder.
  • Bimanually palpate the kidney for masses or tenderness.
  • Perform a rectal or vaginal examination:
    • Manually palpate the urinary bladder for masses.
    • Feel for the prostate in a man (size, consistency, nodularity, tenderness,
      fixation of rectal mucosa to it, etc.).