This clinical condition can be macroscopic or microscopic blood in the urine.

In children, possible causes include;

  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Anaphylactoid purpura Henoch-Schönlein purpura)
  • Fever
  • Strenuous exercise
  • Mechanical trauma (masturbation)
  • Foreign bodies
  • Urinary tract infection (bacterial or parasitic)
  • Hypercalciuria/urolithiasis
  • Sickle cell disease/trait
  • Coagulopathy, tumours, drugs
  • Toxins (NSAIDs, anticoagulants, cyclophosphamide, ritonavir, indinavir)
  • Anatomic abnormalities (hydronephrosis, polycystic kidney disease, vascular malformations, and hyperuricosuria.


  • Confirm the presence of and the extent of haematuria, as well as the primary cause.
  • Determine secondary problems.


  • Treat the primary cause.
  • Manage any complications.
  • Refer those cases that need specialized investigations or management to a higher levels if they cannot be managed appropriately at present level.