- Urinary tract infection
- Malignancies of the urinary tract.
- Bleeding diathesis
- Urinary tract calculi
- Urinary tract trauma
Macroscopic haematuria is more likely than microscopic haematuria to be due to urinary tract pathology.
Ageing is associated with a higher incidence of significant urinary tract pathology.
Should include the following:
- Urine for microscopy cytology
- Urinary tract ultrasound
- Kidney ureter and bladder (KUB), radiograph
- Urine for culture and sensitivity
- Flexible cystoscopy
- Rigid cystoscopy
- CT scan abdomen
- Identify and treat the underlying cause. Treatment for bladder cancer needs special emphasis as delay in diagnosis has morbidity and mortality implications.
- Address any complications that may have arisen.